The biography of ZainabbintJahesh
Honorable Zainab was one of the Holly Prophet's wives (peace be upon him).Her father was Jahesh benRiab and her mother was Umaymah the daughter of Abdul Muttalib. She was also Holly Prophet's aunt (p.b. u. h). One of the events that happened in the fifth year of Hegira was the marriage of the great Prophet of Islam, Muhammad (p.b u. h) with Honorable Zainab bint Jahesh.
Before writing the story of Holly Prophet's marriage (p.b u. h) with Umm Almomnyn Honorable Zainab bint Jahesh, it would be better to review the story of Honorable Zainab's marriage with her first husband, Zaid bin Haritha.
It was said that Zaid bin Haritha was the second man who believed in Holly Prophet's religion (p.b u. h). several years before Beast, he was taken to Umm Almomnyn Khadija's house as a slave. Holly Prophet (p.b u. h) took him from Honorable Khadija and released him .then he became Holly Prophet's stepson (p.b u. h). After that the people of Mecca called him Zaid bin Muhammad.
The story of Zaid's slavery
Zaid was from Calb tribe. He was captured and soled as a slave in Akaz market in a dispute which occurred between his tribe and other Arabs' tribes.Hakim bin Hizam who was Honorable Khadija's nephew bought him on the basis of Khadija's order for buying a slave. Hakim bin Hizam brought him to Mecca. After Holly Prophet's marriage (p.b u. h) with Honorable Khadija, he began to take an interest in him. Because of this interest, he was called ZaidAlhob. When Honorable Khadija saw her husband's interest, forgave him to Holly Prophet (p.b u. h).
Some time passed, it was the time of Hajj. A group of BaniCalb tribe went to Mecca to perform hajj. In that time they saw Zaid and recognized him and he recognized them.Zaid addressed them and said "I know that my parents bewailed when I was absent". In addition,he rhymed some poetries about his health and satisfaction.Then he prayed God for being in Holly Prophet's house(p.b u. h), who was so honorable.
فانّی بحمد اللّه ِ فی خیرٍ اُسْرَةٍ کرامٍ مَعَدٍّ کابرا بعد کابر
The people of BaniCalb's tribe informed Zaid's father of his situation. His father and his uncle went to Holly Prophet's house (p.b u. h) for giving ransom. They said "you, the son of Abdul Mottalib; the son of Hashem; the chief of your tribe, we are here to speak about our son, Zaid. Please benefit us and forgive our son and give him to us". Holly Prophet(p.b upon him), Mohammad said: "You are speaking about whom?" They replied:Zaid bin Haritha. Holly Prophet (p.b upon him) said "why you do not make any other suggestion?" They said: "which suggestion?" Holly Prophet (p.b upon him) said: "Call him and give him liberty to choose. If he chose you, he will be yours but if he preferred me, I swore to God, I will never change him with anything". They said: "this is really more than equity and we accept it".
Holly Prophet (p.b upon him) called Zaid and said: "do you know them?" He replied: "yes, they are my father and my uncle". Holly Prophet (p.b upon him) said: "you know me and you were my companion. Now choose one of us. Do you want to stay here or go with them?"Zaid said: "I do not want them. I prefer no body to you. For me you are like my father and my uncle". Zaid's father and uncle said: "Shame on you .Do you prefer being a slave to your family. Zaid said: "yes, this man has some characteristics that I never prefer him to anyone. Therefore, Holly Prophet (p.b upon him)took him to Hejar Ismail and said:" you, who are present, be aware that Zaid is my son. He inherits from me and I inherit from him".When his father and his uncle saw their son's status, they became glad and relieved and went back to their land.
When Holly Prophet (p.b upon him) was sent to prophecy, a few years were passed from this event.According to fifth and sixth verses of Ahzab chapter:
" اُدعوُهم لِآبائِهِم هُوَ اَقسَطُ عِندَاللَهِ فَاِن لَم تَعلَموُا اَبآئَهُم فَاِخوانُکُم فی الدین وَ مَوالیکُم وَ لَیسَ عَلَیکُم جُناح فیما اَخطاتُم بِهِ وَ لَکِن ما تَعَمَدَت قُلوبُکُم وَکان اللهُ غَفورا رَحیما " و " اَلنَبی اَولی بِالمومِمنین مِن اَنفُسِهِم وَ اَزواجُهُ اُمَهَتُهُم وَ اوُلوا الاَرحامِ بَعضُهُم اَولی بِبَعض فی کِتَب الله مِنَ المُومنین وَ المُهَجِرین الا اَن تَفعَلوا اِلی اَولیائِکُم مَعروفا کان ذَلِکَ فی الکِتَبِ مَسطُورا " .
This sentence was abolished and stepsons' should be named according to their original father.So after that Zaid was called Zaid bin Haritha.1
The story of marriage between Zaid and Zainab bint Jahesh
Holly Prophet (p.b upon him) did a kindness to Zaid and it was finding an appropriate wife for him. Therefore; Holly Prophet (p.b upon him) wooed Zainab bint Jahesh from her family. At first, her family thought Holly Prophet (p.b upon him) wooed her for him so they became glad but when they realized he wooed Zainab for Zaid became rued and sent a message to him and informed him that this marriage is against their family dignity. When thirty sixth verse of Ahzab chapter was sent,Zainab announced her satisfaction and married Zaid.
"وَ ما کان لِمومِن وَ لا مومِنَه اِذا قَضَی اللهُ وَ رَسوُلُهُ اَمرا اَن یَکُونَ لَهُمُ الخِیَرَهُ مِنَ اَمرِهِم وَ مَن یَعصِ اللهَ وَ رَسُولَهُ فَقَد ضَلَ ضَلَلا مُبینا "
After some time, they encountered some problems. Zaid complained Holly Prophet (p.b upon him) about his wife. He wanted to divorce her but Holly Prophet (p.b upon him) asked him to be more patient and said: "do not divorce your wife".
" اَن زیدا جاء یشکوا زوجتُهُ فَجَعَلَ النَبی یقُولُ: اِتَقِ الله وَ اَمسِک عَلیک زَوجک "2
After some time, again Zaid complained to Holly Prophet (p.b upon him) about his wife and said:" we have serious problems and both of us want to get divorce". It was the time when this revelation was sent from God:
"وَ اِذ تَقول لِلَذی اَنعَمَ اللهُ عَلَیهِ وَ اَنعَمت عَلَیهِ اَمسِک عَلَیکَ زَوجَکَ وَ اتَقِ اللهَ وَ تُخفی فی نَفسِکَ ما اللهُ مُبدیهِ وَ تَخشَی النَاسَ وَ اللهُ اَحَقُ اَن تَخشَهُ فَلَمَا قَضَی زَید مِنهَا وَطَرا زَوَجنَکَهَا لِکَی لایَکونَ عَلَی المومنینَ حَرَج فی اَزوَاجِ اَدعِیائِهِم اِذا قَضَوا مِنهُنَ وَطَرا وَکان اَمرُ اللهِ مَفعُولا "
What was the matter that Holly Prophet (p.b upon him) hid it from people? God wanted to prove an order which was against ignorance's etiquette and sentences. In Arab tribes, it was a custom that when a person is accepted as one's stepson, he should not have any relation with his own family. As it was mentioned earlier, according to fortieth verse of Ahzab chapter, God has abolished this tradition .so God has established a new education in Islam. Anyhow, Zaid andZainab get divorced.3
The story of marriage between Holly Prophet (p.b upon him) and Honorable ZainabbintJahesh
God revealed Holly Prophet (p.b upon him): Zainabmarried a person who was from a lower level family. She married Zaid for God's satisfaction and against her willingness and Arab's tradition so we honored her and she will be your wife. Honorable Zainab was from a respected family in Mecca. She was one of the immigrant women. After getting divorced, in third or fifth year of Hegira, she married Holly Prophet (p.b upon him) .in that time she had thirty five years old. She fasted two months to thank God for receiving such a blessing.4
Honorable Zainab was proud of herself after her marriage with Holly Prophet (p.b upon him).She addressed other Holly Prophet's wives (p.b upon him) and said:" I differ from you because you married Holly Prophet (p.b upon him) by the help of your family but I married him through God's order which was sent above the Seven Heavens.
فکانت تفخر علی ازواج النبی "ص" و تقول: زوجکن اهالیکن و زوجنی الله من فوق السموات .5
HonorableAyshe said about her:" none of the Holly Prophet's wives (p.b upon him) competes with me except Zainab"6.Holly Prophet (p.b upon him) calledZainab "Avah" which meant submissive. Again Honorable Ayshe said about her:" I never see a woman who was more devout, virtuous, truthful and honest than her. She was willing to give of her money with the poor.
" ما رایتُ امراه قط خیرا فی الدین من زینب ، و اتقی لله، و اصدق حدیثا، و اوصَلُ للرحم، و اعظم امانه و صدقه "(7)
In addition there was no person who loved relatives more than her. Honorable Zainab not only was a virtuous woman but also she was very active. She colored animal's skins and sewed cloths. It was known that she fasts and praises God for a long time during the night.8
She did some works with her hands. She gave alms to the poor. Above all, Honorable Zainab was a Hadith narrator. She quoted eleven thousand Hadith from Holly Prophet (p.b upon him).9
The life of Honorable Zainab after Holly Prophet's death (p.b upon him)
Honorable Zainab was a wealthy woman after Dear Khadija and it was one of the properties of Honorable Zainab among Holly Prophet's wives (p.b upon him). She gave up her money to the poor. God gave her and her family continuous wealth.So God had made her situation comfortable. Although she tanned and wove mat and sold them and gave up the earned money to the poor, she spoke very gently with Holly Prophet's wives (p.b upon him).
One day Holly Prophet (p.b upon him) was sitting with his wives. He addressed them and said: "those of you, who have longer hands, will soon join me in the Paradise.10
At first, they got the literal meaning of Holly Prophet's word (p.b upon him). so they stretched their hands to see which one was the longest hand but later they realized that Holly Prophet's mean (p.b upon him) was those women who were more generous. In fact that woman was Honorable ZainabBintJahesh.
After Holly Prophet's death (p.b upon him), she was pious likewise and helped the poor. About her generosity it was said that during the second Caliph Umar ibnKhatab, she did not used her share which was allocated to Holly Prophet's wives (p.b upon him).Anyhow one year, she received twelve thousand dirhams and divided them among orphans then she asked God "oh my God, do not give me longer life because wealth is temptation"11
When Honorable Zainab died in twenty year of Hegira at the age of fifty, Holly Prophet's wives (p.b upon him) realized she was very generous. She did not leave any dinar and dirham after her death because she gave all of them as alms to the poor for God's satisfaction.
Honorable Zainab was buried in Baqi cemetery.
Prepared by ShahideBozorgi